What Are Verbal Nouns? (with Examples)
Verbal NounsA verbal noun is a noun that has no verb-like properties despite being derived from a verb.
Easy Examples of Verbal NounsVerbal nouns are formed in a number of ways (usually by adding a suffix to the base form of the verb). For example:
|Verb||Verbal Noun||Example in a Sentence|
|To build||building||It was a lovely building . |
The money will fund the building of a bridge.
|To arrive||arrival||Their arrival has been delayed.|
|To repeat||repetition||I do not want another repetition of yesterday.|
|To decide||decision||That was an awful decision by the referee.|
|To attack||attack||He mounted a surprise attack with the Romans.|
(Note: With some verbs, the verbal noun is identical to the base form of the verb.)
Real-Life Examples of Verbal NounsBeing normal nouns, verbal nouns can be modified by adjectives, be pluralized (if the sense allows), and be followed by prepositional phrases (e.g., …of men, …by me).
- No man saw the building of the New Jerusalem; it descended out of heaven from God (Historian John Robert Seeley)
- We're seeing the arrival of conversational robots that can walk in our world. (Robot designer David Hanson)
- I need to die for the killing of those people. (American serial killer Aileen Wuornos)
- Malicious attacks on the Soviet Union produce a natural feeling of indignation. (Soviet politician Yuri Andropov)
The Difference between Verbal Nouns and GerundsVerbal nouns are not the same as gerunds (another type of noun formed from a verb).
A gerund is a noun that, having derived from a verb, retains a few verb-like properties. For example, a gerund can be modified by an adverb and can take a direct object.
Compare these two examples. The first contains a verbal noun; the second, a gerund.
- This bad drawing of a dog is not acceptable for your project. (This is a verbal noun. It is acting just like a noun. Just as any noun could have, it has a determiner (This) and an adjective (bad), and it is followed by a prepositional phrase (of a dog).)
- Badly drawing a dog is not acceptable for your project. (This is a gerund. It is functioning as a noun, but it has two notable verb-like properties. Just as any verb could have, it has an adverb (badly) and a direct object (a dog).)
More about Verbal NounsFor many grammarians, the term verbal noun has a much broader definition, which covers all verb-derived words that can function as nouns, such as gerunds and infinitives (both of which retain verb-like qualities).
Gerunds. All gerunds end -ing (e.g., building, arriving, killing).
- Killing women and children indiscriminately revolts my soul. (Paraphrase of a quotation by US President Herbert Hoover about the atomic bomb) (Despite being a noun, the gerund killing is showing some verb-like properties. It has taken a direct object (women and children) and is modified by an adverb (indiscriminately).)
- To kill women and children indiscriminately revolts my soul. (To kill is the infinitive form of the verb. In this example, it is functioning as a noun, just like the gerund above.)
- The indiscriminate killing of women and children revolts my soul. (Notice that killing has the following modifiers: The (a determiner), indiscriminate (an adjective) and of women and children (a prepositional phrase). These are all good indicators that you're dealing with a pure verbal noun.
Why Should I Care about Verbal Nouns?Verbal nouns (or pure verbal nouns as they're sometimes called) are common in business writing because they carry an air of formality. As a result, it is not uncommon to read a sentence like this in business email:
- The implementation of the new system will commence on Monday. (This formal sentence features the pure verbal noun implementation.)
Here are two good reasons to avoid verbal nouns:
(Reason to Avoid 1) Pure verbal nouns eat up your wordcount.As verbal nouns are often preceded by a or the and followed by a prepositional phrase (e.g., …of men, …about women), they are pretty inefficient from a wordcount perspective.
- They were having a discussion about the implementation of the new rules. (With two pure verbal nouns, this sentence has 12 words.)
- They were discussing implementing the new rules. (A simple rewording to avoid the verbal nouns cuts the wordcount to 7 with no loss of meaning. The efficiency is achieved by losing the articles (a and the) and by using words that can take direct objects, which kills the need for prepositions (about and of).)
(Reason to Avoid 2) A string of pure verbal nouns does not flow naturally.Businessmen's penchant for verbal nouns sometimes causes them to string their nouns together, creating jerky non-flowing sentences.
- Your explanation of the expectations of the community was clear. (Jerky)
- You explained the community's expectations clearly. (When you've got a string of nouns, replacing one with a verb (here, explained) is a good way to create a smoother sentence.)
(Reason to Use 1) A pure verbal noun can add a little emphasis.Even though verbal nouns can sound stuffy, that air of formality can provide emphasis.
- The careful selection of adjectives is essential.
- Selecting adjectives carefully is essential. (With its pure verbal noun, the top version sounds more authoritative and convincing.)